v beyond the melting point of the blade

v  Introduction

CE 2.1

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In the first career episode, I would like to illustrate and
elaborate my bachelor project. The project title was “Analysis on a convective cooling method using stator
blade”. During the execution of the project,
I was completing my bachelors of
technology in Aeronautical engineering from CM Engineering College (MALLAREDDY
GROUP OF INSTITUTE). The project was initiated at June/2011 and completed in
July/2011. All the project activities were
done in Hyderabad, India. .I worked on this project as a team leader of the
project.


Background

CE 2.2

CM Engineering College is one of the outstanding engineering colleges which provide education services for 19 years and produce the best,
qualitative and competitive bachelor students. It was established under the
shelter of Malla Reddy Group of Institution. It is affiliated with Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University.

CE 2.3

Surface cooling of state blade is very important for the blade life
because of the fact that the inlet temperature produced by the burning fuel in
turbine gas engine was beyond the melting point of the blade material. Therefore,
in this project, a study was carried out
on different turbine blade cooling methods. The
scope of this project was to study and conduct analysis on the best cooling
method like convective heat transfer for
the slow speed engines, as their abundant
availability of high-pressure cooling air
as a coolant, to cool the turbine blade
and the analysis of various methods to increase the cooling effectiveness. In
this project, I used a stator blade with a twist of 45 in its angle supplying
the air through the surface of stator blade material by using convection
cooling method. Hence the stator blade analysis was carried out by commercial
CFD/CFX package. 

CE 2.4

As a team leader of this project, I performed following
responsibilities:

·        
Developed and
implemented the timeline to reach the goals.

·        
Arranged various
meetings between supervisor and team members.

·        
Supervised the
work done by the group members and finished the project in required duration.

·        
Prepared progress
report of the project on the weekly basis
and gave the presentation to the supervisor and the head of the department to explain my weekly work.

·        
Approved my
design, calculations and the methodology before taking the next step in the
project.

·        
Divided the task
between the other members of the group.

·        
Performed cost
estimation and supervised the materials in use

CE 2.5

My position in the project team is shown below;

v  Personal
Engineering Activities

CE 2.6

I did a lot of research on
this topic before initiative this project. I conducted a literature review to enhance my knowledge and
ideas about the project. I studied various research papers about the
“Analysis on a convective cooling
method using stator blade” and also took help from the internet. It was a
great opportunity for me to complete this project under the guidance of my
supervisor. I have studied about old cooling methods used in aircraft engines
such as film cooling, impingement cooling, transpiration cooling, etc. As per
my research on various types of convection
cooling methods, I found that the
convection heat transfer is the best method for low-speed
engines. I sent the project proposal to the department of Aeronautical
engineering for the final approval. After that, I conducted meetings between
supervisors and team members. In this meeting, I finalized the project
methodology and presented an initial report of my research and also gave a presentation at the initial meeting to discuss
the broad view of my project. I assigned the tasks to each member of the team. I
then initiated my research. I first conducted a detailed study on the choice of
the material that is Aluminium. I compare its properties with other metals.

CE 2.7

I designed the axial compressor with a number of stages and rotational speed to achieve the different
pressure ratios. Axial compressors are helpful for producing a continuous flow of compressed gas and have high
efficiency and mass flow capacity. I developed the diagram for showing the
working of the axial compressor and entailed it detailed working. I defined the
axial flow compressors from where the fluid enters and leaves. The main parts
of the design were the stator and moving part. Rotors were used for reducing
the kinetic head of fluid and added to its absolute kinetic head. I calculated
the relative velocity of the rotor and
the fluid and the turning and diffusion capabilities of the airfoils. I maintained the pressure in a
typical stage between 15%-60% to get the polytrophic efficiency of 90-95%. I
used the rule of thumb and assumed that each
step in the compressor had the same temperature rise (delta T). I determined the
temperature at each stage that increases
progressively through the compressor. I calculated the ratio delta T/T and
found that it decreased at stage entry, thus implying a progressive reduction
in the stage pressure ratio through the unit. Hence, I computed a significantly
lower pressure ratio than the first stage. I designed the relative motion of
blades and after that, I determine the
fluid velocity or pressure through the rotor. I observed that the fluid
velocity increased and the stator converts kinetic energy to pressure energy. I
calculated the increase in the velocity in the tangential direction (swirl) and
the stator removed this angular momentum. Subsequently, I calculated the rise
in stagnation temperature rise by the increase in pressure which depends on the square of the tangential Mach
number of the rotor row. So, I designed the current turbofan engines fans that were operated at Mach 1.7 or more.

CE 2.8

I used velocity diagram to design the blade rows at the first
level. By the velocity diagram, I calculated the relative velocity of the blade
flows and the fluid. I kept the axial flow through the compressor as close as
possible to Mach 1 to maximize the thrust for the given compressor size. I
applied tangential Mach number to determine the attainable pressure. I designed
the blade rows in which flow was turned at an angle ? so that it allowed a
higher temperature ratio and high solidity. After that, I used compressor maps
to show the performance of compressor and allowed the determination of optimal
operating condition. I designed the mass flow along the horizontal axis, as a
percentage of the actual unit. I indicated the pressure rise on the vertical
axis as a ratio between the inlet and
exit stagnation pressure. I indicated the surge or stall at the boundary to the
left of which the compressor performance rapidly degraded and then, I
demonstrated the maximum pressure ratio through the mass flow. I drawled the
contours of efficiency as well as operation line at particular rotational
speeds. I performed the whole analysis of the project on the ANSYS, Inc.
(NASDAQ.ANSS) software. I used this software to produced static, dynamic,
nonlinear and linear structural analysis.

CE 2.9

During the project, I found that the compressor could be run at
any other condition with different flows, speeds, or pressure ratios, so this
could result in an efficiency penalty or even a partial or complete breakdown
in the flow. Thus a practical limit on the number of stages and the overall
pressure ratio comes from the interaction of the different stages when required
to work away from the design condition. Therefore, in order to mitigate these
off-design conditions I provided flexibility in the compressor to the certain extent. I achieved this normally by using
adjustable stators or valves that could bleed fluid from the main flow between
stages. I also suggested the modern jet engines in which the compressors
running at different speeds so that air supplied at around 40:1 pressure ratio
for the combustion with sufficient flexibility.

CE 2.10

During the tenure of the project, I coordinated with the other
team members at every step to fulfill our
goals efficiently. I also conducted meetings with my group members to discuss every issue that occurred during the project.
I appreciated and motivated their involvement so that they work honestly and
produce best possible results. I always respected the valuable suggestions from
my team members and I also maintained the friendly atmosphere. I assured that
my project activities didn’t produce any harmful or hazardous effects on the environment. I also had a first aid kit
with me always to avoid the minor injuries.

CE 2.11

I prepared the final project report using the MS Word that showed
my excellent writing skills. I also used MS PowerPoint
for my presentation which I delivered to the Supervisor. I showed my great
writing communication skills as well. In the project report, I have provided all my research work and design activities.
I prepared the project plan and scheduled the activities that showed my project
management skills. I showed my great understanding
of engineering standards and I followed them in this project.

CE 2.12

My research activities in this project showed that I was likely to
enhance my Engineering Knowledge. I always kept my interest in improving and
growing further in my field. Therefore, I always tried to learn more. I
conducted research and study on each methodology and polished my engineering
skills. In this project, I also coordinated with my supervisor to learn more
and grow in my file. During the project,
I have faced some issues and for that, I
always contacted my Supervisor. I first dropped him an email and took a time for the meeting.
I then explained him and also took his suggestion for resolving the issue.

d)
Summary:

CE 2.13

I successfully completed the project under the inspection of my
supervisor and the guidance of head of the department. Their motivation was solely responsible for the development of the
project. I was also applause for my remarkable work and effort during the
project as a team leader. Fortunately,
this project polished my skills. I learned to
work on ANSYS software at more advanced level. The project proved to be
an addition to my technical skills. I learned a good amount of knowledge.

 

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