Today the technological advancements that have been made

Today in 21st Century in the year 2017 the technological advancements that have been made throughout the world is remarkable. The unprecedented strides that the human race is being able to make in the field of science and technology is unmatched in the history of human kind. The world has become more of a global village where everyone and everything is networked to one another from the basic infrastructure systems to the government organizations, educational institutions, modes of transportation, etc.Even though the advancements have been remarkable, we cannot turn a blind eye to the problems that lie ahead of us to maintain the security and integrity of the systems. The huge number of cyber attacks that take place every year underline this fact. Even if we consider the year 2017, the cyber world saw a large number of attacks inflicted upon them. The most considerable among them were shadow brokers, WannaCry, goldeneye, etc. Since the beginning of 2016, more than 4000 ransomware attacks have occurred every day. As compared to the year 2015, this is an increase of over 300% when around 1000 ransomware attacks were seen every day. And the most important thing to be considered here is that dealing with cyber-attacks are a very costly affair. Out of the organizations that were a part of the sufferers of successful cyber-attacks, 52% of them do not intend to make any change to their existing security systems, 31% are making changes to the existing security systems whereas the rest 17% are unsure whether they need to make changes to the existing security system or not.  Thus, it can be safely stated that security of the systems is of utmost importance but is something that has not been paid adequate amount of attention. So, we need to change this perspective by building new methods as well as optimizing the existing ones to enhance the overall security of the systems and the messages being transmitted from one user to another.Here we are choosing one technique of cryptography to study it in detail, and to work for improving it on its drawback, connecting it to generate digital signature and proposing a new variant of the same along with pseudo code. I. Introduction: The methodology or the practice to store and transmit data in a secured form so that the messages can be transmitted securely and will be read only by the user who it is meant for is known as cryptography. Until a few decades back, cryptography only consisted of encryption, which is the method of converting plaintext into cipher text. But with the dawn of modern times, decryption has become an inseparable part of cryptography as well. Decryption is the reverse of encryption, which means it is a method to convert the cipher text into the original plaintext.Modern cryptography mainly has four objectives. They are:a. Confidentiality: Confidentiality means that it should be understood only by the user it was meant to be.b. Integrity: Integrity means that the messages during transmission and receiving should not lose any part of it and should be able to be reproduced as it was before encryption. c. Non-repudiation: Non-repudiation means that the sender cannot deny that a particular message that was actually sent by him was send by him.d. Authentication: The sender and receiver can confirm the origin and destination of the message before transmitting it or receiving it.I.1 Basic working of cryptography:The basic requirements that are essential for performing cryptography are as follows:a. Cryptographer: The term cryptographer refers to that individual which is assigned with the task of performing cryptography or solving ciphers and encrypting or decrypting data.b. Cryptographic key: The cryptographic key can be defined as the piece of information which determine the functional output of the cryptographic algorithm.c. Cipher: A cipher in cryptography refers to a series of well defined steps that can be used as an algorithm for encryption or decryption.d. Plaintext: Plaintext refers to the data which needs to be stored safely or transmitted securely to a destined user without falling into the hands of any unauthorized third party.e. Encryption: Encryption is the technique by which any plaintext is secured for transmission or storing.f. Cipher Text: Cipher text is the output obtained after encrypting the plaintext by using a cipher.g. Decryption: Decryption is the reverse technique of encryption. After the plaintext is encrypted and converted to cipher text after which the transmission takes place, at the receivers end the cipher text need to be transferred back to plaintext. This is done by using decryption.h. Code: Code is a system to convert text, data, images or sound into some other form of information in a secret or shortened form to storing it or transmitting it over a medium.

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