The little progress with the formation of Anti-Saloon

The Progressive Era witnessed the rise of the public control of gas, electricity, water; municipally owned utilities suggested people smaller rates than the private organizations. Private utilities were under the jurisdiction of commissions that inspected rates, unions and various business operations. The railroads and the transportation systems in cities were regulated in a similar way. Progressives were excited by the scientific management, that’s why the reforms were conducted not only in the political sphere but in social life as well. The anti-alcohol campaign had a little progress with the formation of Anti-Saloon League in 1893. This organization was aimed at prohibiting alcohol rather than persuading people not to drink. It was supported by the Protestant churches, and by 1917 about two-thirds of the states prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol. In December 1917, Congress ratified the Eighteenth Amendment that banned the produce of alcohol, its sale and transportation worldwide.The National Child Labor Committee organized a campaign aimed at stopping the children exploitation. The photographs taken by Lewis Hine were the most efficient weapon in this movement. They showed young girls and boys working with the unsafe instruments in plants and mines. In 1910, most states established the minimum working age (between 12 and 16) and the maximum length of a workday. Besides, progressives aimed to limit the workday of women as the long hours in the factories affected their health. The Supreme Court agreed with that and limited the working day of the women laundry workers to no more than 10 hours a day. In 1911, there was a terrible accident in New York. More than 150 people died in the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire. In result, the New York State legislature established a 54-hour workweek for women and developed safety rules at factories. Although the limiting of women workday showed that they were weaker than men, women finally received the right to vote. The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution that gave that right was confirmed by all states in 1920.Camella Toeli was just 12 years old when she began working in a Lawrence, Massachusetts, textile mill to help support her family. Soon after she started, a machine used for twisting cotton into thread tore off parts of her scalp. The young Italian immigrant spent seven months in the hospital and was scarred for life. Many social welfare reformers worked to soften some of the harsh conditions of industrialization. The social Gospel and settlement house movements of the late 1800s, which aimed to help the poor through community centers, churches, and social services, continued during the Progressive Era and inspired even more reform activities. In addition, many women were inspired by the settlement houses to take action. Though most progressive distanced themselves from socialism, they saw the truth of many of Debs’s criticisms. Big business often received favorable treatment from government officials and politicians and could use its economic power to limit competition.Many progressive leaders put their faith in experts and scientific principles to make society and the workplace more efficient. Within industry, Frederick Winslow Taylor began using time and motion studies to improve efficiency by breaking manufacturing tasks into simpler parts. However, not all workers could work at the same rate, and although the introduction of the assembly lines did speed up production, the system required people to work like machines. This caused a high worker turnover, often due to injuries suffered by fatigued workers. This incentive attracted thousands complained in a letter to Henry Ford in 1914, “That $5 is a blessing a bigger one than you know but oh they earn it.” Such efforts at improving efficiency, an important part of progressivism, targeted, not only industry, but government as well. ” Everybody will be able to afford a car, and about everyone will have one.” – Henry Ford, 1909 (from The Origins Of Progressivism)Natural disasters sometimes played an important role in prompting reforms of city governments. In 1900, a hurricane and tidal wave almost demolished Galveston, Texas. The politicians on the city council botched the huge relief and rebuilding job so badly that the Texas legislature appointed a five member commission of experts to take over. Another natural disasters a flood in Dayton, Ohio, in 1913 led to a widespread adoption of the council manager form of government. Staunton, Virginia, had already pioneered this system, in which people elected a city council to make laws. By 1925, managers were administering nearly 250 cities. In some cities, mayors such ass Hazen Pingree of Detroit, Michigan (1890-1897), and Tom Johnson of Cleveland, Ohio (1901-1909), introduces progressive reforms without changing how governments was organized.

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