Shmulsky which exemplary faculty members approached teaching students

Shmulsky
& Gobbo (2013) outlined three kinds of strategies for
community college instructors to more successfully interact with and support
their students with ASD. These included strategies to support critical thinking
instruction, improve executive function, and minimize classroom anxiety. In the
other article, they presented focus group data on faculty members’ observations
of strengths, challenges, and teaching strategies from their interactions with
students with ASD. Faculty members described providing structure and attending
to the emotional climate and anxiety of students with ASD as promising
instructional practices. Although the review of instructional strategies in
both articles suggested potential ways that faculty can support students with
ASD, they should be viewed as general guidelines because they were not elicited
as promising approaches from the students with ASD themselves or from faculty
recognized as successful in their interactions. In order to enhance practices and
suggest development of additional support in higher education for faculty who
instruct students with ASD, this study investigated the ways in which exemplary
faculty members approached teaching students to support their academic success.

Kunttu
& Pesonen (2012).When discussing the needs
of elementary school starters, it comes as no surprise that a percentage of the
young students require extra support due to learning or other disabilities. It
may be a surprise, however, that research conducted by the Finnish Student
Health Service survey in 2012 found that 3.4% of universitystudents had a
diagnosed learning difficulty or illness/disability that affected their
learning.

Hehir
& Katzman, (2012).The numbers of students with
disabilities have been increasing over the last two decades both in general
population and schools. The voice of human rights advocates, parents, community
leaders, and positive outcomes of inclusive education encouraged policymakers
to include more and more students with learning disabilities in inclusive
classrooms to receive educational services with their non-disabled peers.
Students with no disabilities refer to students receiving education in general
education classrooms. In addition, Students with disabilities refer to students
receiving education either in special education classrooms or inclusive
classrooms. In the US, legislation such as No Child Left Behind was passed to
hold all schools accountable for the success of all students including the ones
with disabilities. However, most students with disabilities continue to lag
behind peers with no disabilities in science, reading, writing, and math. One
of the reasons why such students fall behind their peers may be because of
ineffective instructional leadership provided in public schools.

Jimenez,
Browder, Spooner and Dibiase (2012) examined the impact of
inquiry lessons on the academic skills of students with moderate intellectual
disabilities in a sixth grade inclusive science classroom. Participants
included six students without disabilities and five students with moderate
intellectual disabilities. Participants implemented three inquiry science
activities including vocabulary words, pictures, word and picture match, and
concept statement.

Humphrey,
Woods, & Huglin, (2011). Suggested that the
interaction between students with disabilities and faculty is so crucial that, “students
who interact with faculty members get better grades, are more satisfied with
their education, and ,are more likely to stay in school” . However, students
with disabilities become reluctant to request accommodations and suffer the
consequences when, faculty members seem unwilling or unapproachable. Students’
inclination to seek out help decreases when, they perceive prior or current
faculty as having negative attitudes toward or a reluctance to work with
students with disabilities.

Mugo
et al., (2010) argued, instead of addressing education
as a human rights issue, the PDA takes a charity approach. The Act states that
the government should make provisions for assistance to students with
disabilities in the form of scholarships, loan programs, fee subsidies, and
other similar forms of support in both public and private institutions (Section
7). Though the right to admission in learning institutions is strongly stated
in section 18 (1), the Act is silent on circumstances where such a person
cannot afford the costs of education . Thus, while there is an emphasis on
admission, there are neither compelling directives for the universities to
provide supports and accommodations for students with disabilities upon admission
nor clearly spelled out procedures and consequences to ensure compliance. This
leaves the quality and quantity of accommodations for students with
disabilities at the discretion of the universities. Although the universities
under study made attempts to develop procedures for ensuring compliance with the
PDA, much of these efforts were a result of student and staff advocacy. One
could argue, therefore, that the PDA lacks a strong implementation and
evaluation framework.

Taylor
(2005) stated, “Although most of the population may be
aware of disabilities such as blindness and deafness, few may be aware of the
nature of autistic spectrum disorders” (p. 489). This can especially be
difficult when ASD can fall into the “invisible disabilities” category, making
the condition difficult to identify, accept, and respond to. As faculty become aware
of the needs of students with ASD, particularly in light of increasing
enrollments, they can learn to adapt their pedagogical methods to accommodate
and include students in productive and equitable ways.

 (Horn, Peter, Rooney, & Malizio, 2002;
Newman, Wagner, Cameto, & Knokey, 2009; Raue & Lewis, 2011).
Today, students with disabilities comprise approximately 11% of the overall
college student population. As this population continues to expand on most college
campuses, disability is a growing facet of diversity in higher education
(Stodden, Brown, & Roberts, 2011). The majority of students with
disabilities in postsecondary schools have learning disabilities (LD), Attention
Defi cit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and mental health disorders (Raue &
Lewis, 2011). These “non visible” disabilities typically require adaptations in
instruction, course content delivery, and assessment. As such, college
faculties face new challenges in planning for, delivering, and evaluating
instruction.

Fletcher
et al., (2007).Students and adults with mathematics
learning disability (MLD) are individuals that perform at a level substantially
below their peers in mathematics, whose poor performance cannot be explained by
any deficit in vision, speech, hearing, or intelligence. It is, in a sense,
“unexpected underachievement”. Learning disabilities, which can occur in the
areas of reading, mathematics, and/or written expression, contribute to
students experiencing low self-esteem due to their poor academic performance
and negative school reports.

Olivier
& Williams, (2005). To adequately view the impact the
demands of being a special educator of students with significant disabilities
has on attrition, it is necessary to analyze the variety of services they
provide. The job of a special educator working with students with significant
disabilities may include challenges other teachers do not often experience. Instead
of teaching one grade level or one subject, teachers of students with
significant disabilities must teach to various needs and levels: learning, physical,
social, communication, and independence. These daily job requirements present
unique challenges that go far beyond the normal requirements of teaching and involve
additional work and responsibility. Teachers of students with significant
disabilities must be familiar with a large range of intellectual and
communication abilities and must address behavior in a complex way to be
effective.

Wagner,
Newman, Cameto, Garza, and Levine (2005) in their studies noted
that approximately one-third of eligible college students with disabilities
self-identify and receive accommodations, and the self awareness, self-regulation,
and self-advocacy skills of these students are likely more developed than those
who do not self-identify. Multiple, universally applied strategies for helping
students better understand their learning and transition needs, the social and
academic supports available, and how to self-advocate would benefit students
with and without disabilities. Student affairs preparation curricula and
practical might be enhanced by highlighting the need to recognize and more fully
address these dimensions of student development.

Kadison
& Digeronimo, (2004) there is serious concern about the
academic performance of college students who live with non visible disabilities.
Non- visible disabilities can refer to psychiatric disabilities, learning
disabilities, difficulties with concentration, and hidden medical condition,
among others. For purposes of this article, the term “non- visible disabilities”
will apply to psychiatric disabilities and disabilities that pertain to
attention issues. One estimate from the 1990’s reported that over 4 million students
have withdrawn from postsecondary education, before graduating, because of a
non-apparent disability.

Fuller
et al., (2004) studied obstacles that faced students
with disabilities at university. The results of the study indicated that there
were many obstacles such as the fast rate of the teachers’ speech during the
lectures, as well as difficulty in participating in the discussion and
answering the questions. Also some lecturers resented allowing disabled
students to tape the lectures, and it was hard to access the educational
centers. There was a lack of suitable computer programs.

Hartmann-Hall
and Haaga (2002) found a correlation between students’
help seeking behavior and their impression of the climate on campus relating to
disabilities. In addition, studies of higher education students in search of
accommodations and other support services indicate that in addition to students
being unfamiliar with available support services, they often lack knowledge
about procedures for obtaining, accommodations. Therefore, recognize perception
of confession and accommodations among college students with non- visible
disabilities could help Disabilities Service offices enhanced to modify their
services to students.

Lehmann
et al. (1999) found that those students with
disabilities who took more general education classes were more likely to be
actively involved in their transition planning. Transition planning components
also have been linked to higher rates of receipt of postsecondary supports.
Newman and Madaus (in press) reported that students who received education on
transition planning during high school were more likely to receive
disability-specific supports at 2-year colleges, and those who had transition
plans that directly specified needed postsecondary accommodations and supports
were more likely to receive disability-specific supports at 2-year and CTE
schools.

Bandura
(1989) suggested that the reciprocal interaction between
students with different backgrounds (students with disabilities and students
without disabilities) can show an increase in cognitive student achievement
within the same environmental setting. Another explanation for the
aforementioned findings may be that the researcher found that the social
interactions between all students in the inclusive classroom dictated peer
support. This resulted in less time and effort of the teacher on students with
learning disabilities creating more teaching and more effective classroom management.

Diener
& Dweck, (1978); Dweck & Leggett, (1988)
In his study more negative courses of action to academic problems, many students
don’t seek help from Learning Centres because they don’t interpret their
difficulties as ,overwhelming or debilitating obstacles. They recognize that
learning something is not necessarily a straight-line process, but rather is
one that is often beset by confusion, misdirection, and dead-ends. For them,
barriers to learning are not seen as insurmountable, but rather as challenges
that are an ordinary part of learning; rather than getting frustrated and
quitting or seeking help, they focus on the content and try to employ coping
strategies that allow them to deal more effectively with the problem on their
own.

Gulam
and Triska (1998) conducted interviews with graduating
students of a high school in England to understand concerns students with
disabilities faced upon completion of high school, including what facilitated a
smooth transition from high school to college, and to create a model to ease
the transition to further education.”Many students with disabilities experience
educational programs which stress compliance and teach them to second-guess
their instincts and defer to others,” “When you combine that with the
bullying our students face, we tend to find a significant need for explicit,
supportive instruction in self-advocacy skills.”

Newman
et al., (2011) stated that higher education has
experienced a, significant and rapid increase in enrollment of students with
disabilities over the past 40 years. Today, students with disabilities comprise
approximately 11% of the college student population. Higher education has long
been thought of as an opportunity for upward social mobility; in fact, the
average college graduate earns 84% more over a lifetime than an individual with
only a high school diploma. Yet, equal opportunity to both access and earn a
college degree has long been unavailable to many in American society (e.g.,
students of color, women). While considerable progress has been made toward
addressing this inequality, persistent disparities remain insofar as access to
and success in post secondary education for people with disabilities.

Kashapova,
Ishembitova & Shayakhmetova, (2013) stated that children
with disabilities get the richest experience in conditions of communication
with healthy children in a general education school. The adaptation of the
procedural side of learning to the individual needs of each student allows all
students to learn the basic school program successfully, to meet their
educational needs, which is a reflection of a value approach in the
implementation of inclusive education. Peculiarities of the Russian mentality
should be also noted: recognizing the need to improve the material support and
health care of people with health problems, many people are convinced of lack
of prospects in their lives, they doubt the necessity of corrective measures
for children with disabilities whose defective activities will not be fully restored.
In estimating a person with disabilities, the feature “disease/health” becomes
predominant.

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