Role WHO however expects that by 2017, even

Role of ICT in Developing
Smart Cities

 

Dr. Vineeta
Chauhan,

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“CSSEIP”
University of Rajasthan, Jaipur

E-Mail:[email protected]

 

 Abstract: The concept of
Smart Cities appears as a new paradigm of intelligent urban development and
sustainable socio-economic growth, whose origin can be traced back to the Smart
Growth Movement of the late 1990s. The World Health Organization (WHO)
estimates, the global urban population will grow approximately 1.84% per year
between 2015 and 2020. The WHO however expects that by 2017, even in less
developed countries, majority of the population will be living in urban areas.
We need a new operating paradigm that provides for the needs of urban residents
in an economically viable, socially inclusive, and environmentally sustainable
way. Smart Cities are characterised by a pervasive use of Information and
Communication Technologies (ICT), which help cities make better use of their
resources. ICT-based solutions can be considered as just one of the various
input resources and approaches to urban planning and living that have the aim
of improving the economic, social and environmental sustainability of a city.
An increasing urban population need more efficient asset and resource
management to develop high-quality living to citizens. The smart city
transformation is fueled by technology advancements and the deployment of
intelligence and information management systems. This study imphasis how ICT
can help urban communities for their sustainable development.

Key Words

Smart
Cities, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic City,
Sustainable Development

Introduction

           Cities accommodate nearly 31% of
India’s current population and contribute 63% of GDP (Census 2011). Urban areas
are expected to house 40% of India’s population and contribute 75% of India’s
GDP by 2030. This requires development of physical, institutional, social and
economic infrastructure. All of these are important for  improving the quality of life and attracting
people investment and  setting a virtuous
cycle of growth and development. The development of Smart Cities is first step
in that direction.

          A large number of people are
migrating from rural areas to urban areas for better jobs and quality life.
It is estimated that the proportion of people living in an urban environment
will increased 70% by 2050. ICT is
playing an important role in the development of smart cities. It provides
better services and improves the well-being of the citizens. Smart cities
provide high efficiency and also manage complexity. As the urbanization is
growing at a steady pace, the economy is also growing at an unfaltering pace.

          The
concept of Smart Cities has been the subject of increasing attention and it now
appears as a new paradigm of intelligent urban development and sustainable
socio-economic growth, whose origin can be traced back to the Smart Growth
development of the late 1990s. The World Health
Organization (WHO) estimates, the global urban population will grow
approximately 1.84% per year between 2015 and 2020. The WHO however
expects that by 2017, even in less developed countries, majority of the
population will be living in urban areas. An increasing urban population need
more efficient asset and resource management to develop high-quality living to
citizens.The smart city transformation is
fuelled by technology advancements and information management systems. This
study imphasis how ICT can help urban communities for their sustainable
development.

Definition of Smart Cities

          A smart city may be defined as a
city, well performing in economy, people, governance, mobility, environment,
and living, built on the smart combination of activities of self-decisive,
independent and aware citizens.

         “A smart sustainable city is an
innovative city that uses information and communication technologies (ICTs) and
other means to improve quality of life, efficiency of urban operation and
services, and competitiveness, while ensuring that it meets the needs of
present and future generations with respect to economic, social and
environmental aspects”.

Review of the Literature

Anthopoulos and Fitsilis 2013 describes
smart city can be defined with alternative approaches, which range from
attributes of ICT in the city level which describes different IT-enabled
solutions in urban context to information flows and to large scale living labs
(Marsh, 2008). The smart city approach can be viewed as an interdisciplinary
case such as urban planning, ICT, living labs and creative industries in a
specific city (Anthopoulos and Fitsilis 2013)

Batty et al., 2012 states that the cities
become smart not only in regard to ICT-enabled automated functions and services
to the public and infrastructure but also to engage them in every level of the
process. This gives them the opportunity to understand, plan 22 and monitor in
a way to improve the city in the area of efficiency, equity and well-being of
the citizens. Nowadays cities can be considered as good playing grounds to
implement innovative initiatives like co-creation, exploration,
experimentation, and evaluation of concepts (Smas, et al., 2016)

According to (Neirotti et al, 2014) level
of corruption, decision making power and other political conditions influences
smart city projects. This also influences the privatepublic partnerships (PPP).

Why
Smart Cities

               
A smart city is an innovative technique, using high technologies to
reduce the city environmental footprint and to improve the citizens’ quality of
life. Smart cities use ICT to implement smart strategies and to collect and
share information with users. For this, a smart city is which join different
aspects of life in the urban area and include several concepts such as
Electronic city, virtual city, intelligent city, information city, digital
city, knowledge city, and so on. This deep use of ICT enhances the role of the
smart city in collecting and distributing data, information and knowledge which
affecting the daily life and improving its quality. Smart cities provide high
efficiency and also manage complexity. ICT is playing a leading role in the
development of smart cities.

               
The World Bank states that by 2050, India’s urban population will nearly
doubled to 857 million more than twice the population of the United States.This
exponential growth demands  smart
infrastructure for sewage, water and electricity. Smart Cities focus on the
primary needs and will accommodate rapid urbanization, tap new opportunities to
improve the quality of life for today and the future. The Smart Cities mission
is a new initiative taken by the Government of India to drive economic growth
and improve the quality of life of people by using technology as means for
smart solutions for citizens.

Different Policies for the
Development of Smart Cities

          India is now being talked at global
level for the development of Smart Cities under PM Narendra Modi’s vision
“Digital India”. This ambitious plan is to build 100 smart cities across India
in the period of five years and see India as a digital leader of services in
various sectors including health, education and finance. Smart city would be a
city which has a core infrastructure for clean and sustainable environment. As
per Government of India – Smart Cities would focus on the most pressing needs
and on the opportunities to improve lives. They approach electronic and
information technologies, urban planning, best practices, public-private
partnerships, and policy change to make a difference. They always put people
first.

          Smart Cities is a dynamic process
which is developed by six main dimensions: smart people, smart mobility, smart
economy, smart environment, smart living and smart governance. Smart ICT is a
powerful tool that access, store, process and disseminate information into big
data base for entire urban communities and can ensure all round development
without compromising the quality of life. New technologies can protect and
preserve a city’s environment and provide a healthy living for its citizen
which is essential for Smart Mobility. Increasing
urbanization and
sustainability development are a wave of investments in revitalization of
existing cities and development of new ones. However, given the scale of the
challenge, simply throwing more money at the problem is not a solution the
world needs a new paradigm that provides the solution to urban residents in economically
viable, socially inclusive, and environmentally sustainable . Governments are
recognize the role of technology in meeting these objectives. City investments
that include a large ICT component can enable the designing of smarter cities
that give a better quality of life for their residents which is more sustainable
and cost efficient. Not only the residents that stand to benefit from this
trend. governments can also meet their objectives fastely and cheaply, while
ICT players find themselves at the cusp of a whole new market.

           The strategic components of
area-based development in the Smart Cities Mission are city improvement, city
renewal and city extension means a Greenfield development plus a Pan-city
initiative in which Smart Solutions are applied in larger parts of the city.

Role of Technology in Developing Smart Cities ICT

          Cities are the heart of societies
where the world’s economic activities are manifested, pooled and exchanged and
also they are transferred and radiated. The usc of information and
communication technologies is the key element to the transformation of modern
cities. Information and telecommunication technology, as the choice of a future
city, promises a better life. The rise of information society changed the
economy of city into a new era. Cities, especially those in major metropolitan
areas, are playing an increasingly important role in making ICT a significant
part of their services and operations.

          ICT and Urban
Life revolution transforms not only industries, but also lifestyle which is
increasingly tied information in to digital and electronic form where people
look at a bright future by the ever-growing ICT, think that technology is
created to serve human beings both public and private sectors which are working
together to make a better city life with information and communication technology
(ICT). Role of ICT in modern logistic company’s development is very important
for their survival and growth. As a result, competitions in this sector are
driven by information management and technological advances, rather than by
expanding on the physical facilities. Today ICT support all business functions
and delivers the greatest value in the management and access to information for
making decisions and predictions.

           The development of modern
telecommunications has changed the world, and brought fundamental
transformation in the content, format, methods and the organization of
education. Modern society requires for everyone to be able to work and study by
using multi-media equipment and the Internet to acquire, store and process
information. Distance learning has also overcome the obstacles of time and
space. While advances in the information access techniques, the challenge of
ICT is how to promote a more value-cente.

Key technologies that make a smart city

New energy technologies, new modes of transportation,
new way of water systems, building-construction innovation, less-water and
soil-less agriculture, and small-scale manufacturing will be available in the
near future. These trends are outlined in the City Infrastructure Technologies
and are evolving through private sector commercialization and city government.
Information and communication technologies (ICT) through the Internet of Things
converging data standards in computational methods and technologies are also
combining to provide new possibilities for the socioeconomic development of
cities. Local governments are looking technologies and creating pilot projects
to improve their services. Technologies also influence patterns of behavior.
Digital and mobile technologies are making the connections between service
providers and users faster, and more comprehensive. City services like
education and health care are also changing due to technology..

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