Procedures more generic term with supplementary components, for

Procedures of Translating Local Contents into English

The procedures
used in this study is adopted Newmark (199a) strategies, Transference, Cultural
equivalent, Descriptive equivalent, Synonymy and Transponym and adjustment
(Hatim & Munday, 2013). Here are the discussions about those strategies:


Transference is related
to the process of transferring an SL word
to a TL text as a translation procedure(Newmark, 1991). In this case, the translator has to decide whether some words need
to be translated or not in accordance with
the principle the referent in the SL culture.  Some things usually translated are names of
all living and dead people; geographical and topographical names, names of
periodicals and newspapers; titles of as yet untranslated literary works,
plays, films; names of private companies and institutions; names of public or nationalized
institutions, unless they have recognized translations; street names,
addresses, etc. (Newmark, 1991). This strategy is acceptable when the CSI has already been adopted
into the TL (Brasiene, 2013). For example, Bundestag – Bundestag. In the booklet, the
transference strategy could be found when the writer described the name of the district or proper name of someone, i.e.,  Borobudur, Pangeran Purbaya which are kept to
be natural as it is.

Descriptive Equivalent

This strategy is used in order to describe
some CSIs. It indeed against the function and it focuses more on explaining thing in a general way(Newmark, 1991). Brasiene (2013) concludes that in descriptive equivalent, CSI is
translated in a more generic term with supplementary components, for example,
Machete is a ‘Latin American broad, heavy instrument, the function is ‘cutting
or aggression. In this booklet, the readers could find the definition of kupat
: “kupat,
a type of dumpling made from rice packed inside a diamond-
shaped container of woven palm leaf pouch.


Newmark (1991)
defines synonymy as the synonym of a word which has near sense for TL
equivalent to an SL word in a context, “where a precise equivalent may or may
not exist” (p.84). it could be used when there is no clear one-to-one
equivalent but the word is not important in the text. It can be seen from the
examples: personne
gentile-‘kind’ person; difficile-difficult;
and ‘puny effort-effort faible. However, synonym procedure is only
appropriate where literal translation. is not possible to be used.  In the booklet, the reader may find the word pulo, gunung, and  monumen
translated into the island, mountain and
monument since they do not affect so much on the meaning of the translated product.


Transonym is the
translation procedure of converting of personal, geographical, and literary
proper names, e.g., John/Jean/Johan/Juan/Giovanni, Napoli/Naples/Neapel  (Newmark 1991: 88). In this booklet, the
reader may find the words like Jawa and Belanda translated into Java and Netherland.


strategy is related to dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence in the
translation of texts. This strategy is applied when translator either does
nothing and ends up with a meaningless literalism, or actively seeks equivalence through adjustment. This subsumes a
set of techniques for restructuring the ST message in the TL. In this case, the
writer employed this strategy in translating the song and riddles in the

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