One most popular theoretical models for decision making.

One could
argue, groupthink is one of the most popular theoretical models for decision
making. Groupthink arises when clusters of policymakers pursue “conformity
and consensus at the expense of exploring different
policy options” FIND A REFERENCE. This model argues
that dominant personalities will use authority, and/or political influence to overshadow
opposing alternatives. For example, “the Bay of Pigs invasion organized by the Eisenhower administration,
but was accepted by the
Kennedy administration” ( YourDictionary, n.d.) they were convinced
that Castro’s army was weak and “ignored questioning whether the Central Intelligence Agency
information was accurate” ( YourDictionary, n.d.). Also, objections
were suppressed or overruled. Moreover, according to Irving Janis “when
decisions are impacted by
groupthink, consequences are bound to happen such as, objectives not being precisely defined;
alternative actions are not fully examined” (Roberst Jackson, 2016). This can happen “directly
or indirectly” because it is challenging
to speak truth to power. For this reason, groupthink contributes relevant
analysis to international politics, since, one of the crucial matters in
groupthink is it happens more frequently when “there is not a clear procedure
and has a tendency to generate “direct pressure on dissenters” (Roberst Jackson, 2016) hence, leaving “dominant
personalities” (Research Paper, n.d.) to take control. In addition,
groupthink “causes us to treasure harmony and consensus above independent
judgment”  (Ethicsunwrapped, 2017) that potentially
could be considered as unethical behavior. At the same time, this model
indisputably highlights problems with producing foreign policy it argues that
the decision-making process is made by decision makers “who are reluctant” (FIND REFERENCE) to put forward different
strategies that could potentially be effective, simply because “members feel inclined to avoid
deviation from group consensus, and minimize” (Robert
Jackson, 2016)
the chance of incongruity from
the leadership. Groupthink also
contains elements of ‘individualism in the theoretical model’ since the concept
of the individual leader’s personality traits is dominant and very apparent
within groupthink. Above all, groupthink relies on the idea, that decision makers rarely raise differing tactics, even if
those tactics are superior. Yet, this is still
linked to the notion of “individual leaders placing severe constraints on exploring different
information and alternatives” (FIND A REFERENCE). Even so, “group think is not
only to better explain misguided foreign policies; it is to know how to avoid
the next” (Robert Jackson, 2016).

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