Motivation what motivates a person to work, to

 Motivation ‘is essential in achieving one’s goal, no matter how near or far-reaching’.(Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine, 2011). In every sphere of life motivation is used and is defined by Huczynski and Buchanan as the ‘cognitive decision-making process through which goal directed behaviour is initiated, energized, directed and maintained’ (Huczynski and Buchanan 2013:292). Furthermore, is characterised as ‘the driving force within individuals that affects his/her direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary behaviour’ (Bratton et al., 2007).  In a workplace an employee’s motivation is an essential element to fulfil the companies objectives and so a demotivated workforce can lead to a road of disaster. Each organisation will have different components that are useful in advancing their productivity, efficiency, and motivation in making a successful workforce, however even the most successful companies in the world can be detrimentally affected by an unmotivated workforce; ‘even capable employees who a firm want to retain sometimes suffer from a loss of motivation’ (Honore, 2009:63).  The incentive of having a motivated workplace is a crucial part of a successful workforce as ‘A motivated workforce can be a sign of a successful organisation’ (Buchanan, D. & Huczynksi, A., 2017) and ‘in order to perform a task well or behave in a certain way, we have to be motivated’ (Honore, 2009:63). ‘At the basis of human behaviour there are the needs, wishes and motives.’ (Motivation In Work, 2010). ‘When Apple released the Ipad in May 2010, pictures of iPhones were burned in Hong Kong and protestors called for a global boycott of Apple products. This followed a series of employee suicides. These deaths raised questions about ‘sweatshop’ working conditions.’  (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2017). There are many factors that motivate workers and in this instance the workers would have been highly unmotivated, due to a number of lacking factors that are used to motivate people.     Figure 1. Needs and expectations at work (Mullins, 2005)   Figure 1 shows the basic classifications for work motivation, what motivates a person to work, to maintain an active, healthy productivity level in the workplace without suffering from a lack of motivation. The first is social relationships at work: an affiliation, a need to belong.  This is a key factor of motivation in the work place as ‘It improves the supportive working relationships and teamwork and comprises friendships, group working and the desire for affiliation, status and dependency.’   (, 2018) Intrinsic satisfaction: Personal Orientation  This is a worker’s personal orientation within the work place including contributing factors such as how well they perform, dependent on the person, what job role they are in. ‘It is dependent on the individual attitude and varies from person and circumstances. It also varies from jobs and different part within the same job. It is derived from the nature of the job itself, interest in the job, and personal growth and development. (, 2018) Economic/extrinsic rewards: instrumental approach to work ‘It is an instrumental orientation to work and includes items such as pay, fringe benefits, pension right, material goods and security’. (, 2018)  For example, how much pay you receive is an extrinsic reward and when looking at monies relationship with motivation, Aguinis et al defined it as ‘It took me a long while to learn that people do what you pay them to do, not what you ask them to do’ (aguinis et al., 2013, p.242). People only do what they get paid to do and not what is asked as they are motivated by what they will benefit out of it and money is a factor of this.   Goal Setting Theory:  Goal setting theory is a process of motivation which argues that work motivation is influenced by goal difficulty, goal specificity and knowledge of results. Also defined by Buchanan as the ‘Goal setting theory is a process theory of motivation, which attempts to predict and explain work behaviour.’ (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2017) However, the main advocate of this approach, Edwin Locke (1968), once argued that ‘goal-setting is more appropriately viewed as a motivational technique rather than a formal theory.’ (Locke, 1975, p.465). ‘ The Goal setting theory has four key elements/persepctives  which have been backed up by research (Locke and Latham, 1990): ‘Challenging goals lead to higher levels of performance than simple and unchallenging goals. Difficult goals are also called ‘stretch’ goals because they encourage us to improve.  Specific goals lead to higher levels of performance than vague goals such as ‘do your best’. It is easier to adjust our behaviour when we know precisely what is required of us. Goals should thus be smart: specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and time-related.  Participation in goal setting can improve performance by increasing commitment to those goals, but managerially assigned goals that are adequately explained and justified can also lead to high performance.  Knowledge of results of past performance is necessary for effective goal achievement. Feedback contains information and is also motivational.’ (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2017)    ‘A goal is simply something you are trying to accomplish; it is the object or aim of an action.’ (Encyclopedia of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2018). Setting a goal is not only constructive, it is a valuable tool within successful organisations it is mainly designed there to motivate a worker and help increase the performance. When somebody is involved in goal setting and inclusive in the process a person is more inclined to take a personal interest in achieving that given goal. There is a sense of achievement, and a greater success within the organisations.  Aspects of motivation in work will lead to high levels of achievement, responsibility, recognition, advancement, growth, satisfaction and performance.  

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