Javeria AhmedD-15-CH-904th Year, Section BPetroleum Refinery EngineeringAssignment#1Question No. 1 Define the following terms:1.Initial Boiling Point(IBP):The initial boiling point at constant pressure is defined as the temperature value when the first bubble of vapor is created from the liquid mixture. 2.Final Boiling Point(FBP):It can be defined as the end point at which components having highest boiling points are evaporated.3.True Boiling Point Distillation:It is a standard batch distillation test for crude oil used to determine for the quality of products (petroleum cuts) and so to determine the value of crude oil.3.Flash Point:The flash point is a characteristic that is utilized to recognize combustible fluids, the lowest temperature at which vapours of the volatile components will ignite, when an ignition source is given is called flash point.4.Fire Point:After removing the ignition source, the lowest temperature at which the vapors burnt after being ignited is called fire point. 5.Kinematic Viscosity: Kinematic viscosity is the measure of resistance of flow under the influence of gravity. 6.Dynamic Viscosity:It is also called absolute viscosity, the measurement of resistance of fluid when an external force is applied is called dynamic viscosity.7.Aniline Point:The lowest temperature point where aniline(C6H5NH2) and our desired component of oil are miscible in equal volume is called aniline point.Aniline point test:Aniline point test is used to measure the aromatic contents present in the volatile fluids. The lower aniline point indicates higher number of aromatic compounds. Apparatus and Method:Apparatus for the determination of aniline point test includes Beaker, Thermometer, Stand, test tubes and cooling and heating bath.Mix equal amount of aniline and desired oil in a single beaker, insert thermometer and maintain constant temperature while giving heat. When both liquids become miscible, record the temperature.Question No. 2 Answer the following questions: What is meant by the term specific gravity?The ratio between the density of required liquid with respect to the density of water is called specific gravity. What is the relation between API gravity and density and give the standard units of both?API gravity is inversely proportional to density. The standard unit of API gravity is degrees. Specific gravity is dimensionless. An oil X is considered to be 950 kg/m3. Using water as a reference determine the API gravity of oil X and explain whether X will behave in water giving a logical explanation.API Gravity of oil X=141.5/(Specific Gravity)-131.5Specific Gravity= 950/1000Specific Gravity= 0.95API Gravity of oil X=141.5/0.95-131.5API Gravity of oil X=17.44 degreesThe answer is greater than 10, so the oil X will float. How would you classify X.?API gravity which becomes less than 22.3 degrees is a heavy oil. Generally the heavy oil are darker in colour. Heavy oil are viscous and less volatile. Name a suitable process in a refinery which can be used on X to obtain the product.As the oil X is a heavy crude oil, Cracking will be suitable. Apart from the above process on X. I argue to save time and energy I can use skimming and obtain the same desired results which were obtained by the above mentioned process. Is my claim correct? Justify in either case whether you agree or disagree with my claim.Disagree. As the oil X is heavy oil, containing higher amount of sulphur. Skimming is used for lighter end of carbon chains with atmospheric distillation, naptha treating and necessary treatment for lighter end products, so the time and energy as well as the yield of desired product will not be same.