It is undeniable that migration is a common feature of
Bangladesh’s recent history. Migration is considered as the movement of people
from one geographical region to another, which may be on temporary or permanent
basis. The rapid growth of rural-urban migration has been a common feature of
the developing countries. Like other developing countries, the number of
migrant dwellers is increasing very rapidly in urban society of Bangladesh.The
Ready Made Garment (RMG) has been placed largest export earnings of Bangladesh.
The garment industry employs 3.6 million workers out of a total population of
over 150 million. Most of them are migrants from rural area.In simple words we
can say that perception is the act of seeing what is there to be seen. But what
is seen is influenced by the perceiver, the object and its environment. The
meaning of perception emphasizes all these three points..Perception, in simple terms, can be defined
as the way an individual thinks. The thinking patterns differ from one
individual to another and the way of thinking is decided by several factors.
Reality, on the other hand, refers to the true state of something that may not
be realized by individuals easily.
Perception is the way
how a person understands something and different people may have different
perceptions for the same thing. Realty, on the other hand, is the truth and the
actual existence of something.
Whatever we perceive is not necessarily the same as it really is.In Bangladesh,
before migration people perceive that they will get better life in the place of
destination and hope they can reduce the problem that they face in the rural
area. So their perception is closely related to the factors related to
In this paper, for understanding the perception of migrants,
factors associated with their migration has been assessed.
Migration is considered to be one of
the important strategies for the progress and development of rural poor. People migrate from one place to another for
the development of their overall living standard and to enhance their social
position. Especially migration has occurred for better opportunity and for
better job.(Haider 2010 )
People migrate from one to another
area due to facilities of employment and to fulfill the subsistence need. Rural
poor consider migration as a process to be free from the vicious cycle of
poverty. (Islam et al. 2007, p.23)
On the other hand, rural urban migration is the principle
component of rapid and unplanned growth of towns and cities in the developing
countries. Bangladesh is one of the highest rates of growth of urban
population. According to UN projection, the size of the urban population will
be about 100 million by the year 2025 (UNESCO, 2009).
Migration to Dhaka causes economic,
social and cultural improvements for some people but also deterioration in the
overall urban environment and a very low standard of living for the very large
number of migrants who constitute the poor. The urban benefits fail to touch
the majority of the poor migrants.
Dhaka city alone contains about 3.4 million people in 4966
slums (Ishtiaque and Mahmud, 2011). Actually most of the slums of Dhaka are
composed of poor rural urban migrants from various regions of the country.
Overcrowding of people has created severe pressure on the existing social and
physical infrastructures and its absorbing capacities. Necessarily,
environmental, social, economic and political problems of major significance
are being created.
So at present, massive rate of rural
to urban migration and excessive pressure in urban labor force has been a major
concern to all.
Bangladesh is one of the developing
countries in Asia with a high level of population redistribution and internal
migration. By migration strategy, poor people can get better opportunities to
remove their poverty and enhance their socio-economic condition (Siddique 2003,
p.2).Most of the urban migrants in Bangladesh are young aged. Some research
results explores that rural –urban migration in Bangladesh is influenced by
environmental pressures, weak agricultural development and food
insecurity, poverty, landlessness, unemployment in rural areas, easy access to
the informal sectors, higher income,
better livelihood, job opportunity in the city, better social amenities,
migration network. (Rahman, 2013).In the context of rural Bangladesh, People
migrate from rural to urban area because of professional advantage and
financial progress in the urban area especially, for the proper wage by work,
health facilities, education facilities and recreation facilities etc. In
addition, Migration is a driver of growth and also is an imperative path away
from poverty with considerable affirmative impacts on people’s livelihoods and
welfare in Asia (Anh, 2003). Though the links between migration and development
are positive, the emphasis is changing. Traditionally, negative effects of
migration on development were recognized. Migration was habitually viewed as
the result of poverty and lack of development, or as a factor contributingto
poverty in urban or rural areas. Internal migration, therefore, was sometimes
considered as an obstacle to development that had to be restricted and
controlled (Dang, 2003).The expectation that by moving the migrants will find appropriate
employment and enjoy a better standard of living does not always
materialize and subsequently, those poor who are migrating can end up only in
the category of the chronically poor.(Rahman & Chowdhury 2012).At present
this increasing rate of migration is now causing various problems such as
overcrowding, difficulties of waste disposal, shortage of housing, rising of
slums, inadequate Educational facilities, poor water and power supply, traffic
congestion, and environmental degradation. Because rural poor migrants to Dhaka city
generally settle in slum and In Bangladesh the environment of slum is worst. But internal migration can also have a positive impact on
development and poverty Reduction. Internal migration can bring a crucial
change for people of all economic status,and an important contributor to
national economic growth (DFID, 2004). Internal migration has the potential to
contribute to development in a number of ways.From the above discussion it can
be said that The migrants carry with them the hope and dream of better living
and livelihood. They come to the city to fulfill their needs and desire which
cannot be fulfilled in the rural areas as rural Bangladesh for lack of
opportunities. But what is happening
after their migration from the area of origin to Dhaka?
The purpose of this study is to know about their perception
when they decide for migration and after that migration what they are facing in
their life based on changes of different factors such as socio economic
conditions, income, health, housing, health seeking behavior, medical
facilities, job satisfaction, amount of savings, overall working environment,
transportation and food consumption etc.
There are several studies on internal migration and the
factors behind it. But there is a shortage of study about the fulfillment of
aspirations of migrants from the migration.This people who migrate by some push
and pull factors hope of advancing lives opportunities end up having difficulty
finding somewhere to live in the Dhaka city and engage in the informal economy.
Often, rural-urban have to settle down in slum areas. This results in many
people living without acceptable levels of shelter, sanitation, food, security,
access to fresh water, effective waste systems or acceptable health
services.Today, both poor and better off people pursue migration for a better
life. In recent years, most of the cities in Bangladesh are experiencing rapid
but unplanned urbanization.Migrants are usually concerned with the benefits
they hope to gain by moving and usually give less thought to the problems that
they will incur as a result of the process. So the proposed study will explore
the perception of their migration about the place of destination and to know
the reality what they experience in the place of destination and changes of
livelihood due to migration and identify do they fulfill their desire or not.
It will help to re-examine the links between migration and development in the
context of changes in socio economic condition of the internal Migrants.