Introduction:In a variety of objectives .[1] In this

Introduction:In this Modern era,cybercrime
has become a buzzword.Actually,Cybercrime means illegal activity through
computer or related devices as a tool and the internet as a connection in order
to reach a variety of objectives .1

In this
assignment, we will try to discuss about cybercrime in detailincluding the
types, methods,technical reasons and adverse impact of cyber crimes on a network
as well as thebehavior , psychology behind this crime & some effective solutions.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Hackers were first started
cybercrime by trying to break into computer networks.1 Some of them had done
it only for the thrill of accessing high-level security networks, but others
for sought to gain many sensitive, classified and secret materials.1Criminals
started to infect computer networking systems with viruses that leads to
breakdowns on  business as well as
personal computers.1Nowadays,hackers and othercriminals in the
virtual world are always trying to get the most sensitive and secret data &
information at least amount cost by viruses and also other types of malicious
soft-wares.2

Infact, the Internet is the largestchain
of computer network that are connectedtogether which had a great impact to
connect us globally by allowing the transmission of information,messages, and
data 2.Besides these opportunities, Unfortunately this largest network
connectivity also allowslawless individuals to communicate with other lawless
individualsas well as with theirvictims.2

 

 

 

Some common Cybercrimes are:6

1.
Phishing Scams

2. Online Scams

3. Malware

4. Email Bombing

5. Virus Dissemination

6. Logic Bombs

7. Theft

8. Social Media Hack & Spamming

9. Electronic Money Laundering

10. Sales & Investment Fraud

11. Eavesdropping &
Surveillance

12. Software Piracy

13. Data Diddling

14. Salami Slicing Attack

15. Hacking(website ,social
account)

16. Cyber Stalking

17. Cyber Bullying

18. Identity Theft

19. Child Soliciting & Abuse

20. Ransomware

 

TechnicalReasons:There are many technical reasons
behind these crimes.Some technical reasons behind cyber crimes are as follows:

 

•     
Lack
of reporting and standards3

•     
Tough
to identify3

•     
Limited
media coverage.3

•     
Least
marginal cost of online activity due to global 
reach.3

•     
A
very few rate of Official investigation and criminal prosecution3

•     
Capability
of computer to store data in comparatively small space.4

•     
Easy
to access4

•     
Complexities
in operating systems code4

•     
Lake
of evidence4

•     
Negligence4

•     
Loopholes
in systems5

•     
Confidential
information in online5

 

The threats of cybercrime to the
network security are not only for several organizations, but can be observed
all over the world in

different countries.

 

Relative risk of running computer networks
around the world are shown bellow:2

Name of the Country

            
Parcentages(%)

Chile

                     
61%

China

                     
45%

South Koria

                     
35%

US

                       
7%

Germany

                       
7%

Japan

                       
6%

UK

                       
6%

Sweden

                       
4%

Narway

                       
3%

 

Network security:2

Its very alarming for our country also…Now, its
urgent to prevent cyber crimes.So we all should try to use proper network
security.

Some  common types ofInformation Security Network

Protection( ISNP) packagesare as
follows:

1.BlackIce

2.Conseal PC

3.Tiny

4.Protect X

5.Sygate Firewall

6.Win Route Pro

7.Zone Alarm

8.At Guard

9.Esafe Desktop

10.Hack tracer

10.Internet

Firewall 2000

 

 

Benefits of Network Securities:Network
securities are very essential to prevent cyber crimes due to many benefits such
as:

1.Reduces unauthorized lawless
individuals from accessing someone’s

network.2

2.Gives transparent & legal
access to Internet-enabled users.2

3.Provides the surity that
sensitive data & information is transferred safely by thepublic network.2

4.Providenetwork managers to
search and fix securityproblems.2

5.Gives a effective system of
warning alarmsattempt to access network.2

 

Behavior of criminals:

We have known  about cybercrime as well as its types,
impact, technical reasons in previous discussion.

 

But it is also very important to
know about the behavior or psychology of criminals behind cyber crimes. Because
who involves in  this

behavior have also become a part
of our  society.8 But there is a
difference between computer criminals andnon-computer criminals moral choiceand
exploitive or manipulative behaviors.8 Self-reported computer criminals

were always higher on
manipulative behaviors but

on moral choice internal and
moral choice social,they were lower.8

 

A research had been done by an
organization with 77 participants from a mid western universityEnrolled in the
college of technology.Among these participants 87%were male and 13% werefemale(Table-1)
.8 The mean age was taken 21years.Mainly,participantsare the representative
of the largest population of interested individuals of  17–30 years age who make up the majority of
those individuals engaged in criminal behavior.8

 

Table-1:8

 

 

Participants

Percentage
 

Gender

 

Male

86.8%

Female

13.2%

Age

 

18–20

51.4
(35)

21–23

39.7

24-27

7.4

27-older

1.5

Ethnicity

 

white

85.3%

Asian
American

8.5%

African
American

1.5%

Indian

1.5%

Asian

1.5%

Asian(Indian)

1.5%

Major

 

Comp.Tech

91.2%

Comp.Graphics

1.5%

Comp.Science

1.5%

Others

5.9%

 

 

 

It have been also
found by this research that they had engaged in these following activities such
as:8

 

1.trying to guess passwords.

2.trying to use other’s password
without authorization.

3.creating or using  a virus.

4 Obtaining a device for  free phone calls.

5. Trying to get someone’s credit card data
withoutauthorization.

6.. Observing at others’ files without
authorization.

7.Modifying or changing others’ files without
authorization.

 

Actually, there are some psychological
reasons behind these behavior such as

•     
Official
investigation and criminal prosecution is rare.5

•     
Catching
by law and enforcement agency is less effective and more expensive.3

•     
Passion
of youngsters5

•      For
the sake of recognition.3

•      Desire
of making quick money5

•     
Create
new form of Crimes5

•     
Accessibility
of victims5

•     
Drawbacks
in judiciary system5

 

 

Besides Network securities we can also
reduce cyber crimes by taking some proper steps such as:

•     
 Proper Investigation.7

•     
Strong
Legislation.7

•     
 Penalties.7

•     
 Increasing Awareness.7

•     
 Intelligent
activities7

 

 

 

Website Hacking:

Websites
became a major part of our life for various purposes. But its very alarming
that, websites may be hacked by hackers.Website
hacking has become a great threat forbusinesses
developing an online presence.9

Hackers are stealing secret data ,
information, taking control ,even shutting down any website. 10 The popularity of Web site hacking is mystifying.9 Actually, Hacking  of a Web site can affect the credibility and
reputation of the organization.9 But among many types of cyber crimes , Why
do hackers give effort to deface a Web site?9 There are some reasons behind
this.

 

 

 

Hackers can hack websites in many ways such as: 10

 

1.DDOs Attack(Distributed Denial ofService Attack): Make  unavailable
a website to the users.

2. Remote
code execution attacks:Make security weak either the server side or client
side 

3.Cross
site request forgery attacks:Hackers send to users a
forged HTTP request to collect their cookie information while they are logged
into a session or account.

4.Symlinking-An
insider attack: happens when a hacker positions the symlink Which is a
special file that “points to” a hard link on a mounted file system, the user or
application that access the endpoint thinks that they are accessing the correct
file but they’re really not.

5.DNS
Cache Poisoning: DNS Cache Poisoning attached old cache data, hackers can
identify vulnerabilities in a domain name system that allows to form traffic
from legit servers to a fake website .

6.ClickJacking
Attacks( UI
Redress Attack): to trace a user into clicking the top layer without them
knowing by using multiple opaque layers.

7.Brocken
Authentication and session management attacks:Passwords,
key management, session IDs, cookies are consists in authentication systems
that can allow a hacker to access the whole information from any website.

8.XSS
attack: also known as cross site scripting attacks. It can occur
when an application, file packet, url “get request” is sent to any web browser
window and bypassing the validation process, for example, user may see a page
asking for their credit card info or any other private information. 

9.Injection Attacks: it happens when
there are flaws in the SQL Database, SQL libraries or the operating system by
itself. Users might open the files
with hidden commands that’s make an opportunities to  hackers to get unauthorized access to
secret information as well as data as like credit card numberor other financial
data.

 

A hacker can
exploit vulnerabilitiesby  applying  multiple and various  techniques to hack a WebSite.So some techniques  must be applied  to prevent website hacking as well as keep
any website safe.

 

 

 

Some effective techniques for prevent website hacking are givenbellow:

 

1.Keep
software up to date regularly.11

2. Toughen up  access control.9

3.EnsureOS
level protection9

4.Use HTTP
attack protection9

5. Use Web
server resources protection9

6.Use standard
Transact SQL.11

7. Give strong
passwords11 

8.Use HTTPS protocol to provide security over the
Internet.11

9UseWebsite
security tools such as Netsparker, OpenVAS, SecurityHeaders.io, Xenotix XSS, Exploit Framework  etc.11

10. Tighten network security.12

11.
Hide admin pages.12

12.keep
Limit file uploads.12

13.
Use SSL.12

14.keepBack-up
frequently.12

15. Use Server
side validation11

Conclusion: We can not think our daily life
without computer as well as internet. The advantages of internet and computer
can not be described in one word. But they have also some demerits as like
cyber crimes.Its also became a part of our life. Criminals and victims both are
the part of our society.Now, the rate of various types of cyber crimes
increases rapidly. It must be reduced by keeping proper steps that’s are
already discussed in this paper for keeping safe our personal and private data
and information ,ensure the security of all types of websites and making
our  society clean & peaceful.

 

Written by