In this global era of technology,
smartphones have become the ubiquitous personal devices. The interest of human
beings in mobile computing has shifted from laptops to phones and tablets.
Smartphones are being used widely in broad and diverse population, from younger
to older, student to businessman and almost all areas of life. Smartphone has
become very personal devices that store a plethora of sensitive personal
information and services. Now the smartphones are not restricted in the limit
for just calling and texting but has become more generalized having various
technologies and services widely used. From online booking to money
transactions, from bill payments to online shopping, from texting to online
video calling, from gaming to social media every task is being done through
Android OS is one of the most
famous operating system in smartphones. . According to the recent market
analysis, more than 90% of registered mobile devices are smartphones or
tablets, leading to more than 2.7 billion active subscribers. Noticeably, more
than 80% of these devices are based on the Android operating system (OS), the
most popular OS for smartphones and tablets. Android is based upon open source
architecture. Its broad spread OS and open source nature have attracted
software developers and led to enormous amount of applications available on the
market, from games to entertainment tools, from photography to social media,
from programming to business tools, from commercial to scientific tools. These
applications can be used for very specific targets or can be used in various
Google set a baseline version of
Android offer it to developers freely in the form of Android Open Source
Project (AOSP). Manufacturers and carriers are free to build upon this
baseline, adding custom features in a bid to differentiate their products from
their competitors. With the passage of time these customization has grown
increasingly sophisticated over passing of the time. Hardware has grown more
capable and the vendors more adept at working with Android framework.
Android platform had
revolutionised after getting enormous popularity over the last five years. But
this popularity has also explored the attention of major malware developers.
Unlike the other closed app store models, where each app required extensive
security checks and each app is manually checked by security experts, the
android offers an open market model, which makes it a more favourable target
for malicious developers. There are many other factors which contribute to the
spreading of malicious apps for android platform like third-party apps.
Although a lot of research has
been done to remove the security flaws from android OS, but there are still
many threats remains. Therefore, I would try to find resolutions by researching
and would try to analyze present weaknesses.
In section 2 I would try to explore the android
security architecture and try to address the security weaknesses. In section 3
3: Android basic Architecture
Android OS is developed by Google
and designed on the basis of Linux kernel.
Android OS is a layered
architecture which are the Linux kernel layer, middle layer and application
layer which provide services for the layer above them, makes the current and
lower layers different.
The centre functions are
performed by middle layer of android which are implemented by programming
languages like java/C++. All the applications running on android are mostly
written in Java and then these various java class files are converted to dex
format by the Android dextojar tool.
Every Android application is an
independent illustration to run in DVM, and has a unique recognition number
known as PID.
gives brief information about architecture of an Android operating system. The
main component of Android platform as to other components is Dalvik Virtual
Machine (DVM). All java applications are fully sported by Dalvik Virtual
Machine (DVM) which is converted to Dex (Dalvik Executable) format. The dex
format is compressed format of Dalvik executable code,