ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW Research investigating “Artificial Brains” plays three

ABSTRACT:

                   IBM has researched to create a virtual brain,
called “Blue Brain”. The main aim of this research is to upload human brain
into machine.After the death of the body, the virtual brain will act as the
man. So, even after the death of a person we will not lose the knowledge,
intelligence, personalities, feelings and memories of that man that can be used
for the development of the human society.This Project is the first made
comprehensive attempt to reverse-engineer the brain  mammalian, so that through detailed
simulations the function of brain can be understood and it can take decision
without any effort. In this paper,we present the complete research work which
explains the concept, procedures to build the blue brain and goals with
conclusion.

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KEYWORDS:
Blue Brain,Knowledge, Sharing,Artificial
Brain,Neurons Sensory System

 

I. INTRODUCTION

                  When man does not have a
device called computer,it was a big question         for all if it is really possible to
design a computer.But today it is possible due to the technology.This Blue
Brain System is an attempt to reverse engineer the human brain and recreate it
at the cellular level inside a computer simulation. No one has ever understood
the complexity of human brain.It is complex than any other circuits in the
world.

                  The research involves
studying slices of living brain tissue using   
microscopes and patch clamp electrodes.Data is collected about all the
many different neuron types,The project was founded in May 2005 by Henry
Markram at the EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne) in Lausanne,
Switzerland. Goals of the project are to gain a complete understanding of the
brain and to enable better and faster development of brain disease treatment.
This data is used to build biologically realistic models of neurons and
networks of neurons in the cerebral cortex. The simulations are carried out on
a Blue Gene supercomputer built by IBM, hence the name “Blue Brain”.
The simulation software is based on Michael Hines’s NEURON, together with other
custom-built components.

 

II. ARTIFICIAL BRAIN
OVERVIEW

Research
investigating “Artificial Brains” plays three important roles in science.

·        
A serious long term
project to create machines capable of general intelligent action or Artificial
General Intelligence. This idea has been popularized by Ray Kurzweil as strong
AI (taken to mean a machine as intelligent as a human being).

·        
A study called
cognitive neuroscience, which helps neuroscientists to   make an ongoing attempt to understand how
human brain works.

·        
A thought experiment in
the philosophy of artificial intelligence (AI), which demonstrates that it is
actually possible to create a machine that has all the capabilities of a human
being in theory.

 

              III. STEP TO BUILD A BLUE
BRAIN

There are three
main steps to build the virtual Brain.

·        
Collection of Data

·        
Simulation of Data

·        
Visualization  

 COLLECTION
OF DATA: It involves in the collection of brain
portion and analysing them under a microscope and understanding the electrical
behaviour individually of the neurons. The observations are transformed into
algorithm which are further ready for simulation.

 

   SIMULATION
OF DATA:  There are 2 aspects of simulation-

·        
Speed of simulation

·        
Simulation
Workflow       

Speed of Simulation:
The speed of simulation of 1 neocortical column is
two hundred times slower than the real one.

 Workflow:
The simulation step involves synthesizing virtual
cells using the algori

It is written in
C, C++ and FORTRAN and is free, open source software. Neural simulation is
basically used for building and using computational models of neurons and
network of neurons. For blue brain, the current version of neuron which is
being used is 7.2.

 

IV COMPUTER HARDWARE/
SUPERCOMPUTERS.

 

Blue Gene/P

The primary
machine used by the Blue Brain Project is a Blue Gene supercomputer built by
IBM. This is where the name “Blue Brain” originates from. IBM agreed
in June 2005 to supply EPFL with a Blue Gene/L as a “technology
demonstrator”. The IBM press release did not disclose the terms of the
deal. In June 2010 this machine was upgraded to a Blue Gene/P. The machine is
installed on the EPFL campus in Lausanne (Google map) and is managed by CADMOS
(Center for Advanced Modeling Science).

The computer is
used by a number of different research groups, not exclusively by the Blue
Brain Project. In mid-2012 the BBP was consuming about 20% of the compute time.
The brain simulations generally run all day, and one day per week (usually
Thursdays). The rest of the week is used to prepare simulations and to analyze
the resulting data. The supercomputer usage statistics and job history are publicly
available online – look for the jobs labeled as “C-BPP.

·        
Blue Gene/P technical
specifications

·        
4,096 quad-core
nodes 

·        
Each core is a PowerPC
450, 850 MHz

·        
Total: 56 teraflops, 16
terabytes of memory

·        
4 racks, one row, wired
as a 16x16x16 3D torus

·        
1 PB of disk space,
GPFS parallel file system

·        
Operating system: Linux
SuSE SLES 10

This machine
peaked at 99th fastest supercomputer in the world in November 2009.

·        
Silicon Graphics: A
32-processor Silicon Graphics Inc. (SGI) system with 300 Gb of shared memory is
used for visualization of results.

·        
Commodity PC clusters:
Clusters of commodity PCs have been used for visualization tasks with the
RTNeuron software.

 

VISUALIZATION:
RTNEURON
 RTNeuron is generally used for the
visualisation of the neural simulations. This software is written in C++ and
OpenGL. It is written basically for the neuron simulations. This gives the
output in 3D.

               
 Fig. RTNeuron visualization of a
neuron

 

V.GOALS

Neocortical column modeling
. The initial goal of the project, completed in December 2006, was the
simulation of a rat neocortical column, which can be considered the smallest
functional unit of the neocortex (the part of the brain thought to be
responsible for higher functions such as conscious thought). Such a column is
about 2 mm tall, has a diameter of 0.5 mm and contains about 60,000 neurons in
humans;  rat neocortical columns are very
similar in structure but contain only 10,000 neurons (and 108 synapses).
Between 1995 and 2005, Markram mapped the types of neurons and their
connections in such a column.

  Progress
 In November 2007, the project
reported the end of the first phase, delivering a data-driven process for
creating, validating, and researching the neocortical column. By 2005 the first
single cellular model was completed. The first artificial cellular neocortical
column of 10,000 cells was built by 2008. By July 2011 a cellular microcircuit
of 100 neocortical columns with a million cells in total was built.

 

Uploading Human Brain  First, it is helpful to describe the basic
manners in which a person may be uploaded into a computer. Raymond Kurzweil
recently provided an interesting paper on this topic, it describes both
invasive and non-invasive techniques. The most promising is the use of very
small robots, or nanobots. These robots will be small enough to travel
throughout. our
circulatory systems. Travelling into the spine and brain, they will be able to
monitor the activity and structure of our central nervous system. They will be
able to provide an interface with computers that is as close as our mind can be
while we still reside in our biological form.  

Nanobots could
also carefully scan the structure of our brain, providing a complete readout of
the connections between each neuron. They would also record the current state
of the brain. This information, when entered into a computer, could then
continue to function as us. All that is required is a computer with large
enough storage space and processing power.

VI.MERITS

·        
It can help deaf people
to hear with the help of direct nerve stimulation.

·        
 The activity and thinking of different animals
can be understood by interpretation of electric impulse from their brain.

·        
 Even after the death of a person his/her
intelligence can be used for development of the society.

·       
Helpful for many
psychological diseases.

VII. APPLICATIONS

·        
Data of 100 years can
be tested.

·        
Neural Code can be
cracked.

·        
 Information Processing of Neocortical can be
understood.

·        
 Whole brain simulation can be studied.

·        
 A drug for the Brain Disorders

 

VIII.CONCLUSION

  Human brain is complex than any circuitry in
the world. And we are able to scan ourselves in the computer in near future.
The only serious threats raised are also overcome as we note the combination of
biological and digital technologies. Despite all the problems and complexity
faced in the implementation of this project, it is predicted that the project
will be capable by the year 2023. As said by Henry Markam.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

·        
International Journal
on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ( ISSN:
2321-8169 Volume: 4 Issue: 1)

·        
International Journal
of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering (Vol. 4, Issue
8, August 2016)

·        
Blue Brain – The Future
Generation   “Siva Kumar Avula1”, “Vedrucha
S Pakale” and “Sheetal V Kashid”

·        
Blue Brain “Surya Verma”,
“Bhumika Kohli” Student of Department of Electronics & Communication
Engineering, SRMSWCET, Bareilly

·        
http://www.artificialbrains.com/blue-brain-project.

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