A of human life. Despite impressive food production

A 10,000 years ago,
agriculture was developed and since the time of the earliest cultivation many
changes have been witnessed. In the past human used to complete the food needs
by hunting. Animals were used for the food then and now after some time the
human complete the food needs by the agriculture. Human engaged in the
agriculture and now the production of food was for their own use. Now the
agriculture witnessed development day by day and more of the pattern has to use
in the agriculture for the more production. Agricultural practices such as
irrigation, crop rotation, fertilizers, and pesticides were developed long ago
but have made great strides in the past century. In the past century
agriculture has been characterized by enhanced productivity, the substitution
of labor for synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, selective breeding,
mechanization, water pollution, and farm subsidies. The focus of improving food security to the people is an issue of
great importance to the today’s welfare state. Food is the most important need,
as it is necessary for the maintenance of human life. Despite impressive food
production in recent decades, such that enough food is available to meet the
basic needs of each and every person, complete food security has not been
achieved. Food is considered among basic amenities essential for the sustenance
and growth of an individual. It has three dimensions (a) Food availability- total food production including imports and
buffer stocks maintained in government granaries like FCI. (b) Food accessibility- food should be made
available or should be in reach of each and every person (c) Food affordability- an individual
should have enough amount of money to purchase proper, safe, healthy and
nutritious food to meet his dietary needs.

Since 1947, agricultural
development in India aimed at reducing hunger, food insecurity, malnourishment
and poverty at a rapid rate. Keeping this goal in mind, the emphasis, which was
initially on keeping food prices low, shifted to macro food-security and
subsequently to household and individual food-security. Later, the food
security of vulnerable, sustainable use of natural resources, and equity
between rural and urban or farm and nonfarm population became the issues of
dominant discourse related to agricultural development. The policies and
programmes related to marketing and trade were obviously guided by the overall
objective sought to be achieved from the agricultural development strategy. The
changes in marketing environment and production performance of the Indian
agricultural sector should, therefore, be viewed in the context of weightage attached
to these objectives at different points of time. India’s agricultural
development strategy and approach to food security has yet again proved its
resilience in the wake of recent global food emergency, which has created
political and social conflict in several countries of developing world. It
earlier helped India tide over the severe food crisis of mid1960s within a
period of one and half decades and also proved its appropriateness in the wake
of economic liberalization and globalization since the early-1990s. Though,
India’s performance in terms of reducing hunger and malnutrition has not been
as remarkable as that of China and some East Asian countries, given the
political and initial socio-cultural milieu, the achievements have certainly
been commendable. India’s experience has provided several lessons for the
countries that are struggling to come out of the poverty-malnutrition-hunger
trap.

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