A data from a LAN to another network

A
network is a collection of computers, servers, mainframes, network devices and peripherals
connected to one another to allow the sharing of data. Below are some of the
commonly used network devices.

 

Bridge
A network bridge joins two different computer
networks using the same protocol to enable them to work as a single network.
Bridges are used with local area networks (LANs) to extend their reach to cover
larger physical areas. Apart from building up larger areas, bridges are also
used to segment larger networks into smaller ones. The bridge
archives this by placing itself between the two portions of two physical
networks and controlling the flow of data between them. It has the capacity to
block the incoming flow of data as well. There are 3 types of bridges;  Transparent
Bridge: This
device is invisible to other devices on the network. It only blocks or forwards
data as per the protocol set. Translational
Bridge: This device supports conversion. It converts the data
format of one networking to another and has the capability of connecting two
different networks.  Source Route Bridge: This device makes
a routing decision based on the contents of the Media Access Control frame header
of the frame which consists of a routing information field to immediately
follow the source address field in the frame. This enables the bridge to make precise
decisions about how the frame should be forwarded through the Token ring network
containing the destination station.  RouterA
router is a device that joins several computer networks together via wired or
wireless connections. It routes data from a LAN to another network connection.
A router allows only authorized machines to connect to other computer systems.
Most routers have the capability to keep the log files about the local network
activity. 

 DSL
modemA digital subscriber line (DSL) modem
enables the computer to connect to the Internet via an Internet Service
Provider. DSL offers a substantial increase in Internet performance compared to
a dial-up connection. Switch
A switch is a device that is used to network many computers together. Switches have
many Ethernet ports that can connect to computers, cables or DSL modems and
other switches. High-end switches have more than 50 ports and are often are
rack mounted.

Switches can limit the
traffic to and from each port so that each device connected to the switch has a
sufficient amount of bandwidth. However, switches do not have the ability to provide
firewall and logging capabilities.

Network
Interface CardNetwork
Interface Card (NIC) is a device that joins a computer to the network. It is an
add-in card that is installed via the expansion slot on the computer’s mother
board and have the capability to develop a connection between the computer and
the network. There are two types of network cards. The wired NIC
uses wires/cables and connectors to transfer data, while the wireless NIC
establishes a connection through an antenna using radio wave technology. NIC comes
with different speeds; 10Mbps, 100Mbps, 1Gbps, etc. The standard NICs are
built with 1Gpbs connection
speed, but it can support slower speeds too. The speed of the card depends on the
speed of the LAN.

 

HubA hub is the most basic networking
device. It connects multiple computers or network devices to form a single
network segment to allow computers to communicate directly with each other. It
has several Ethernet ports that are used to connect two or more network devices
together. Each computer or device connected to the hub can communicate with any
other device connected to one of the hub’s Ethernet ports. There are three
basic types of hubs; Passive hub: It has no power supply, thus does not provide any
processing or regeneration of data. It only shares physical media.  Active hub: It has power supply, thus
has the ability to regenerate data before being retransmitted and it strengthens
the signals in case of disturbance.  Intelligent hub: An intelligent hub functions
as an active hub. It is stackable and can join one or more hubs together to
extend the number of ports. They have a microprocessor chip and have the capability
to perform diagnostics in which is useful in troubleshooting. It can be
remotely managed.

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