Although
Babesia parasites principally show a world-wide distribution, only a few publications
report human disease cases outside the United States and Europe. The understanding
of its taxonomical classification, global prevalence rates, disease
manifestation and pathophysiology are important to gain futuristic insights
into the diagnostics and treatment of Babesiosis.

·        
TAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION(10,11):

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Kingdom

Eukaryota

Phylum

Alveolata

Class

Apicomplexa

Order

Aconoidasida

Family

Piroplasmida

Genus

Babesiidae

Species

Babesia spp.,

Piroplasms are defined by intra-erythrocytic
forms with apical complex organelles that assume pear-shaped morphology (10).
They undergo a merogonic stage within the vertebrate host erythrocytes, and a
process of sexual growth and sporozoite formation within the invertebrate host
(which consist of ticks in the case of Babesia spp.,) (12). There
are two families within the order Piroplasmida- Babesiidae and Theileriidae;
the primary distinction between them is usually defined as the lack of a pre-erythrocytic
cycle in Babesia and the absence of transovarial transmission in Theileria
(12, 13).

·        
HOST
SPECIFICATION AND LIFE CYCLE:

The maintenance of Babesia spp. is
dependent on both the Invertebrate and the vertebrate hosts; the particular
tick vector must grow on a vertebrate reservoir that is capable of maintaining
the Babesia organisms in a contagious state. Therefore, B. microtii
presents itself as a rising zoonosis only in areas where there is a potential
reservoir.

Life cycle:

Apicomplexans/sporozoans (including the genera Babesia
and its close relative Theileria) generally go through at least three
stages of reproduction (12) (See Figure below):

(i)                
Gamogony: Formation
and fusion of gametes inside the tick gut.

(ii)              
Sporogony: Asexual reproduction in salivary
glands of the invertebrate host.

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