· responsible for perceived or actual oppression. The

Terrorism – is an unlawful use of violence and to insight terror
or intimidation which is normally towards civilians.

Chemical – use of a chemical that can be released into the air or
water or can be thrown at them. It is easy to get a hold of as you can use
anything that has got a chemical formal within. For instance, battery acids as
this is easy to attend and it can be harmful for people’s skin. Main example is
chemical attack in Syria as more than 80 people died including babies or
children. As some chemicals can have long term affects like nerve damage or
blinding s person.

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Suicide bombing – this is when someone is attached to bomb with
intent to kill serval or many people. It can be seen as a human bomb as with
the word “suicide” they are taking their own life in order to kill many more.  Prime example, is the 9/11 attack as the
terrorist group hijacked airplane to crash into the world trade buildings “twin
towers”. As they used the air plane as a bomb in order to create the explosion.
Thousands of lives were lost and others were seriously injured with a massive
mental effect on the world.

Biological – are the use of biological organisms, such as microbes
and virus. These are then spread in a highly populated area of civilians in
order to cause casualties and to lower morale. Bio attacks can’t be used for
pinpoint attacks and can often go unnoticed for days sometimes weeks, making it
difficult to track down the perpetrators. An example of this sort technique is
that of the use of Anthrax spores in the US in 2001.

Hijacking – hijacking would be that which took place on 9/11 when
again four planes inbound for America were hijacked with the sole purpose of
using them essentially as a bomb. In the attack both towers of the World Trade
Centre in NYC were hit and consequently collapsed, the Pentagon (US Department
of Defence) and the final plane crashed in a field after a suspected wrestle
for control of the plane between the terrorists and the passengers but is still
not quite clear.

Assassinations – are used as a method to threaten a specific group
or someone who the terrorist group deem responsible for perceived or actual oppression.
The assassination of a high profile/famous person creates publicity to the
groups cause and increase fear in the civilian population. An example of a
recent assassination attempt would be that of Malala Yousafzai, a Pakistani
school girl who was targeted by the Taliban for speaking out about Women’s
rights to education. Although she wasn’t known worldwide, she was known in her
local province of Pakistan and had started to gain a sort of celebrity for the
speeches she made. As it was a botched attempt by the Taliban she is now known
Globally as an icon for women rights for Pakistan.



Discuss the
methods used by the UK public services to counter both national and
international terrorism. P4


Terrorism act 2000 helps provides a legal base. So in order of
government or public services prosecuting a terrorist or a terrorist
organisation. which can have implantation such as banning them from the UK.

Protections of freedoms act 2012 this indicates that the maximum period of time of a terrorist who is suspected.
 Can possibly detained before being
charged or released. Is from 28 to 14 days. By this the act can ends the
majority of invasive guidelines of investigatory power act that are powered by the
local authorities, to help investigate lower levels of offense.

Terrorism prevention and investigation measure act 2001, they have
measures in order to help protected the public from individuals that are posing
a terrorist threat within the safety of an area. However, they can’t be prosecuted,
for reasoning of a case of foreign nationals, deported.


Anti-social behaviour and terrorism requires specialist handling,
is normally handled by security personnel



All the staff are asked to pay careful attention to anyone who is
displaying or behaving oddly. Prime example, if there was a package had been
left in a congested area, they’d have a police alert, who will escalate the
problem. Police are on a higher state of readiness as a result of the Paris

Using the UK’s comeback to a terrorist incident;

Changing any necessary legislation on terrorism in UK or overseas;

providing security measures and protection packages for public
figures; —

ensuring that the UK’s critical national infrastructure is
protected from attack (including electronic attack);

ensuring the UK is prepared to deal with a chemical, biological,
or nuclear release, and liaising with government and emergency services during
terrorist incidents or counter-terrorism operations.


Analyse the
measures used to combat national and International terrorism. M2

Since the emergence of Al Qaida in the 1990s, international
terrorism has become largely synonymous with Islamist terrorism. Terrorist groups
in Syria and Iraq, including Al Qaida and the Islamic State of Iraq and the
Levant (ISIL), possess both the intention and the capability to direct attacks
against the West. The UK is a high-priority target for Islamist extremists and
they pose a significant threat to our country and to our interests and citizens
abroad. Despite the current main focus on terrorism originating from Syria and
Iraq, the threat of terrorism also emanates from other parts of the Middle East
and regions such as North, East and West Africa, South and South East Asia.

The majority of terrorist attack plots in this country have been
planned by British residents. There are several thousand individuals in the UK
who support violent extremism or are engaged in Islamist extremist activity.
British nationals who have fought for extremist groups overseas continue to
return to the UK, increasing the risk of terrorist attacks. Using skills
acquired overseas, they may organise attacks under direction from outside the
UK, or on their own initiative, or they might radicalise others to do so. While
the majority of returners will not mount attacks in the UK, the large numbers
involved mean it is likely that at least some of them will attempt to do so.

Groups like ISIL make full use of social media and modern
communication methods to glamorise their horrific acts and inspire others to
commit them. Once inspired, an individual might decide to conduct an attack in
the name of Islam without any prior signs of radicalisation. Simple,
self-organised attacks by UK-based Islamist extremists have increased and are
inherently harder to detect than more complex and ambitious plots.


the impact of war, conflict and terrorism on one UK public service. D1

Some moments in history stand out from the rest. For me, and much
of my generation, 9/11 is a critical moment in time that we’ll never forget,
one that took the lives of 2,977 innocent people, brought terrorism to our TV
screens, forced us to become more politically aware, and fundamentally changed the
world and our perspectives of it.


The horrific events of a decade ago have had a terrible and
incomparable impact on the victims, their families, New Yorkers, and Americans.
But the effects of the attack have stretched far beyond U.S. borders.


With a death toll of 67, 9/11 claimed more British lives than any
other terrorist attack, including the Lockerbie bombing and the 7/7 London
attacks that would follow in 2005. This had a significant impact on British
families, the national psyche, and the country’s subsequent response to


The days that followed 9/11 introduced a new lexicon to the West:
Al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, the Taliban, terrorism, jihad, and, unfortunately,
Islam, Afghanistan, and Iraq, all became buzzwords in the media. With their
meanings intertwined and misunderstood, Islam wrongly became synonymous with
extremism and terror. It is difficult to measure the endurance of these popular
prejudices, but the immediate assumption this July that the tragic attack in
Norway was an Al-Qaeda plot indicates the legacy of 9/11, and that the link
between Islam, extremism, and terror is still firmly entrenched in Europe and


Consequently, 9/11 has changed the lives of nearly 3 million
British Muslims in the UK, many of whom have experienced victimization and
alienation from society as a result of Islamophobia.  According to author Zabia Malik, since 9/11
half of the UK’s mosques and Islamic centers have suffered at least one attack.
Meanwhile there are countless examples of Muslims experiencing verbal and
physical abuse after 9/11. British Muslims have also been forced to confront an
identity crisis over the past 10 years, as government policies in the Middle
East and social prejudice has demanded they choose whether their loyalties lie
with Britain or Islam.

As a direct result of 9/11, the UK has also been at war for the
majority of the past decade. The human cost of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq
far outweighs 9/11. Britain has lost 179 servicemen and women in Iraq, and so
far almost 400 in the continuing conflict in Afghanistan. The disproportionate
loss of life to British, American, and other allied forces, in addition to the
huge civilian death tolls in Iraq and Afghanistan, has prompted many to
question whether it is really worth it. Furthermore, Iraq, which cost the UK
around $14.32 billion, and Afghanistan, which is costing over $6 billion
annually, are unaffordable wars which have drained the British economy and
contributed, in part, to the current economic crisis.


British faith in the government has also eroded substantially in
the decade since the Al-Qaeda attacks. The decision by then-Prime Minister Tony
Blair to stand “shoulder to shoulder” with President George W. Bush and follow
the U.S. blindly into war without sufficient evidence and against the tide of
public opinion seriously damaged his personal reputation and that of the Labour
Party. In addition, the assault on civil liberties, from allowing foreign
nationals to be jailed in the UK without charge or trial to permitting the U.S.
to render British nationals from Afghanistan to Guantanamo Bay has led to anger
and ambivalence from the British public and threatened democratic liberties
under the guise of protection.


Despite the horror of that September day, in some ways 9/11 has
changed the world for the better: by stepping up security; removing the Taliban
from formal power; raising political and religious awareness; scrutinizing the
actions taken by the government; and uniting countries against the common
threat of terrorism.


But the terrible attack and the hasty decisions made in its
immediate aftermath have had a profoundly damaging impact across the globe. As
commemorative stories and specials abound in the media this weekend, it is
important to remember the victims and heroes of 9/11, reflect on its global
impact, and learn the lessons of the past decade.


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